Volcanic Volcano
Volcano Terms and Definition

volcanism
Volcanism
Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes going on in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field of volcanology.



Volcano Book
Volcano & Earthquake DK Eyewitness Books
Eyewitness Books provide an in-depth, comprehensive look at their subjects with a unique integration of words and pictures.




Elenco Electronics
Electronic Snap Circuits by Elenco is an award-winning toy for budding engineers eight years old and above
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Volcano
A volcano is a vent at the Earth's surface through which magma (molten rock) and associated gases erupt, and also the cone built by effusive and explosive eruptions.



Surprisingly, there is no consensus among volcanologists on how to define an active volcano. The lifespan of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes meaningless when compared to the lifespans of humans or even civilizations. For example, many of Earth's volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not currently showing signs of activity. Given the long lifespan of such volcanoes, they are very active. By our lifespans, however, they are not. Complicating the definition are volcanoes that become restless but do not actually erupt. Are these volcanoes active?

Active volcano
Scientists usually consider a volcano active if it is currently erupting or showing signs of unrest, such as unusual earthquake activity or significant new gas emissions. Many scientists also consider a volcano active if it has erupted in historic time. It's important to note that the span of recorded history differs from region to region; in the Mediterranean, recorded history reaches back more than 3,000 years but in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, it reaches back less than 300 years, and in Hawai`i, little more than 200 years.

Dormant volcano
Dormant volcanoes are those that are not currently active (as defined above), but could become restless or erupt again.

Extinct volcano
Extinct volcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again. Whether a volcano is truly extinct is often difficult to determine. For example, since calderas have lifespans sometimes measured in millions of years, a caldera that hasn't produced an eruption in tens of thousands of years is likely to be considered dormant instead of extinct. Yellowstone caldera in Yellowstone National Park is at least 2 million years old and hasn't erupted for 70,000 years, yet scientists do not consider Yellowstone as extinct. In fact, because the caldera has frequent earthquakes, a very active geothermal system, and rapid rates of ground uplift, many scientists consider it to be a very active volcano!


Volcano Glossary



NOVA - In the Path of a Killer Volcano
The scientists who remain behind- and see some astonishing footage of the world's largest volcanic eruption in 80 years. Local tribes people were the first to see the signs. "There was a flash of light from the sky"

National Geographic - Volcano
The most dazzling but destructive natural force on earth. Massive volcanic eruption can turn day into night, releasing the power of an atomic blast, spewing toxic avalanches of lava, gas, and ash. National Geographic Video transports you to some of the world's most notorious volcanoes

National Geographic's Restless Earth Collection
Asteroids Deadly Impact Volcano Nature's Fury. The devastating powers of earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanoes and other earth-shattering forces of nature in dramatic scenes of destruction and inspiring human courage captured by the acclaimed filmmakers of National Geographic

Super volcano - It's Under Yellowstone. And It's Overdue

A subterranean sea of molten lava that scientists are sure will burst through the Earth's crust it's just a question of when. And if the resulting super-volcanic eruption is anything like the last one on earth which plunged the world into darkness for six years, tipped us into the last Ice Age and reduced the human population to just 2,000 people we're in for one explosive ride

Lava Flows and Lava Tubes
40-minute video uses spectacular and unusual footage of erupting volcanoes from Hawaii and around the world to explain the features found in many of our volcanic national parks and monuments, and to show how they form. It presents up-to-date scientific ideas about lava flows: how they move, how they change, and how they create lava tubes

Fire Mountain: The Eruption and Rebirth of Mount St. Helens
Two hundred and thirty square miles leveled in moments Five hundred and forty million tons of ash and volcanic rock exploded twelve miles high One cubic mile of earth blasted from the crest of one of the world's most beautiful snowcapped domes Captured in rare and spectacular aerial photography and survivor's own words and pictures, witness the terrifying fury of the worst volcanic disaster in American history

Ring of Fire - IMAX
The Closest You'll Ever Get to a Volcano Originally filmed in IMAX Ring of Fire takes you heart stopping close to the great circle of volcanoes and seismic activity that rings the Pacific Ocean. This film has been seen by millions of people. The story of these immense volcanic forces and the half a billion people that coexist with them every day around the fiery boundary of the Pacific Rim

Savage Earth

Waves of Destruction
Out of the Inferno
Restless Planet
Hell's Crust
From the legendary fury of Mt. Vesuvius to the devastating convulsions of Kobe, Japan, Savage Earth tells the stories of these great natural disasters, the scientists who struggle to understand and predict them, and the people whose lives are forever changed by their merciless force
          

           

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  • Handheld computerized learning system
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Includes motor and hand control (with forward/reverse switch), gears, springs, connecting blocks, two claws, and three eyeballs. Starting with the motor pack, add the pieces together according to the instructions or follow your own mad scientist ideas to create endless mayhem. Can be used alone or with other Gears! Gears! Gears! sets.

Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears!

Great toy to help open up the world of "how things work" for younger kids. Inspires imaginative play, problem solving, and cause & effect thought processes. Gear up for hours of colorful action with Gears! Gears! Gears! enables children to create hundreds of three-dimensional construction possibilities. Set features plastic gears, connectors and interlocking bases packaged in a giant storage tub with an Activity Guides.

Gears! Gears! Gears! Boogie Buddy Motorized Sets

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Source:
U.S. Department of the Interior