Volcanic Pahoehoe
Volcano Terms and Definition


Lava Flows and Lava Tubes
40-minute video uses spectacular and unusual footage of erupting volcanoes from Hawaii and around the world to explain the features found in many of our volcanic national parks and monuments, and to show how they form. It presents up-to-date scientific ideas about lava flows: how they move, how they change, and how they create lava tubes





Fire Mountain: The Eruption and Rebirth of Mount St. Helens
Two hundred and thirty square miles leveled in moments Five hundred and forty million tons of ash and volcanic rock exploded twelve miles high One cubic mile of earth blasted from the crest of one of the world's most beautiful snowcapped domes Captured in rare and spectacular aerial photography and survivor's own words and pictures, witness the terrifying fury of the worst volcanic disaster in American history





Ring of Fire - IMAX
The Closest You'll Ever Get to a Volcano Originally filmed in IMAX Ring of Fire takes you heart stopping close to the great circle of volcanoes and seismic activity that rings the Pacific Ocean. This film has been seen by millions of people. The story of these immense volcanic forces and the half a billion people that coexist with them every day around the fiery boundary of the Pacific Rim





Savage Earth

Waves of Destruction
Out of the Inferno
Restless Planet
Hell's Crust
From the legendary fury of Mt. Vesuvius to the devastating convulsions of Kobe, Japan, Savage Earth tells the stories of these great natural disasters, the scientists who struggle to understand and predict them, and the people whose lives are forever changed by their merciless force
Pahoehoe

Pahoehoe is a Hawaiian term for basaltic lava that has a smooth, hummocky, or ropy surface. A pahoehoe flow typically advances as a series of small lobes and toes that continually break out from a cooled crust. The surface texture of pahoehoe flows varies widely, displaying all kinds of bizarre shapes often referred to as lava sculpture (see pahoehoe terms below).


Picture left - Toes of a pahoehoe flow advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i.


Close view of ropy texture forming on the surface of a pahoehoe flow at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.
Ropy pahoehoe

Ropy pahoehoe is the most common surface texture of pahoehoe flows. The numerous folds and wrinkles ("ropes") that are characteristic of ropy pahoehoe form when the thin, partially solidified crust of a flow is slowed or halted (for example, if the crust encounters an obstruction or slower-moving crust). Because lava beneath the crust continues to move forward, it tends to drag the crust along. The crust then behaves like an accordian that is squeezed together--the crust is flexible enough to develop wrinkles or a series of small ridges and troughs as it is compressed and driven forward.



Person sitting on entrail pahoehoe along the Chain of Craters Road in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.
Pahoehoe entrail

Named after the texture of an animal's intestines entrail pahoehoe best forms when pahoehoe flows down a steep slope. It is usually found on the sides of rootless vents, such as hornitos and ruptured tumuli. On the south flank of Kilauea the most striking examples occur where pahoehoe oozed down steep scarps in the Hilina fault system.



These small glowing pahoehoe toes were fed by lava that broke out from a lava tube (out of view) at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.
Pahoehoe toe

Small protuberances called "toes" are common along the edges and flow front of an active pahoehoe flow moving across flat or gentle slopes. The flow spreads as the small toes grow in size and merge together to form a broader front, which in turn inflates with new lava moving through the molten core of the flow. Another series of budding toes will break out, move forward, and start the process over again.



Lava coil on pahoehoe flow, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.
Pahoehoe Lava Coil

Lava coils are spiral or scroll-shaped features that form along slow-moving shear zones in a flow; for example, along the margins of a small channel. The direction of flow can be determined from a lava coil. Lava on the right side of the photo was moving toward the top of the view relative to lava on the left side.



Blister on the surface of a pahoehoe flow, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Note U.S. quarter for scale.
Pahoehoe blister

Blisters are thin-walled basaltic-glass bubbles formed by the release of volcanic gas from the surface of a pahoehoe flow. Like a glass blower that blows air into molten glass to create a goblet or vase, gas released from lava may force the thin glassy crust of a lava flow to form a large bubble or blister. They are found on all types of pahoehoe flows.
volcanism
Volcanism
Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes going on in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy way how to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field of volcanology.




Volcano Book
Volcano & Earthquake DK Eyewitness Books
Eyewitness Books provide an in-depth, comprehensive look at their subjects with a unique integration of words and pictures.




elenco electronics
Elenco Electronics
Electronic Snap Circuits by Elenco is an award-winning toy for budding engineers





World of the Microscope
Science & Experiments Series

Fascinating, hands-on introduction to using microscopes, this book is packed with exciting projects which reveal the amazing detail of the world around us.


Digtal Microscope




 

Volcano Glossary



NOVA - In the Path of a Killer Volcano
The scientists who remain behind- and see some astonishing footage of the world's largest volcanic eruption in 80 years. Local tribes people were the first to see the signs. "There was a flash of light from the sky"

National Geographic - Volcano
The most dazzling but destructive natural force on earth. Massive volcanic eruption can turn day into night, releasing the power of an atomic blast, spewing toxic avalanches of lava, gas, and ash. National Geographic Video transports you to some of the world's most notorious volcanoes

National Geographic's Restless Earth Collection
Asteroids Deadly Impact Volcano Nature's Fury. The devastating powers of earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanoes and other earth-shattering forces of nature in dramatic scenes of destruction and inspiring human courage captured by the acclaimed filmmakers of National Geographic

Super volcano - It's Under Yellowstone. And It's Overdue

A subterranean sea of molten lava that scientists are sure will burst through the Earth's crust it's just a question of when. And if the resulting super-volcanic eruption is anything like the last one on earth which plunged the world into darkness for six years, tipped us into the last Ice Age and reduced the human population to just 2,000 people we're in for one explosive ride

          

           

Leapfrog Learning Systems

  • Handheld computerized learning system
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Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears! Oogly Googly

Includes motor and hand control (with forward/reverse switch), gears, springs, connecting blocks, two claws, and three eyeballs. Starting with the motor pack, add the pieces together according to the instructions or follow your own mad scientist ideas to create endless mayhem. Can be used alone or with other Gears! Gears! Gears! sets.

Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears!

Great toy to help open up the world of "how things work" for younger kids. Inspires imaginative play, problem solving, and cause & effect thought processes. Gear up for hours of colorful action with Gears! Gears! Gears! enables children to create hundreds of three-dimensional construction possibilities. Set features plastic gears, connectors and interlocking bases packaged in a giant storage tub with an Activity Guides.

Gears! Gears! Gears! Boogie Buddy Motorized Sets

Challenge kids' mechanical reasoning skills while encouraging creativity and gross motor coordination through building and movement. Color-coding makes it easy for children to follow building instructions for three different models. They can also create their own model. Compatible with all other Gears! Gears! Gears! Sets, sold separately.



Source:
U.S. Department of the Interior