Volcanic Magma
Volcano Terms and Definition

Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes going on in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy way how to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field of volcanology.

A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal morphology and physical properties such as density and hardness. Minerals are the fundamental units from which most rocks are made.
  • Common minerals in volcanic rocks include quartz [SiO 2 ], anorthite feldspar [CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 ] olivine [(Fe,Mg) 2 SiO 4 ], magnetite [Fe 3 O 4 ], biotite [K(Mg,Fe) 3 AlSi 3 O 10 (OH) 2 and pyroxene [Ca,Fe,Mg) 2 Si 2 O 6 ]
  • Obsidian (volcanic glass) is not a mineral because glass has no orderly internal structure.
  • Amber is not a mineral because it is formed by organic processes, and its chemical composition can vary.
  • Rocks, such as granite or sandstone, are mixtures of minerals. Their compositions can vary widely and cannot be approximated by a mineral formula.
  • The Moh's Hardness Scale is used to calibrate the hardness of minerals. The list, in order from soft to hard, is as follows:

Moh's Hardness scale

  1. Talc Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2
  2. Gypsum (CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O)
  3. Calcite (CaCO 3 )
  4. Fluorite (CaF 2 )
  5. Apatite Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH-,Cl-,F-)
  6. Orthoclase KAlSi 3 O 8
  7. Quartz SiO 2
  8. Topaz Al 2 SiO 4 (OH-,F-) 2
  9. Corundum Al 2 O 3
  10. Diamond C (pure carbon)

Ring of Fire - IMAX
The Closest You'll Ever Get to a Volcano Originally filmed in IMAX Ring of Fire takes you heart stopping close to the great circle of volcanoes and seismic activity that rings the Pacific Ocean. This film has been seen by millions of people. The story of these immense volcanic forces and the half a billion people that coexist with them every day around the fiery boundary of the Pacific Rim


Volcano Glossary

NOVA - In the Path of a Killer Volcano
The scientists who remain behind- and see some astonishing footage of the world's largest volcanic eruption in 80 years. Local tribes people were the first to see the signs. "There was a flash of light from the sky"

National Geographic - Volcano
The most dazzling but destructive natural force on earth. Massive volcanic eruption can turn day into night, releasing the power of an atomic blast, spewing toxic avalanches of lava, gas, and ash. National Geographic Video transports you to some of the world's most notorious volcanoes

National Geographic's Restless Earth Collection
Asteroids Deadly Impact Volcano Nature's Fury. The devastating powers of earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanoes and other earth-shattering forces of nature in dramatic scenes of destruction and inspiring human courage captured by the acclaimed filmmakers of National Geographic

Super volcano - It's Under Yellowstone. And It's Overdue

A subterranean sea of molten lava that scientists are sure will burst through the Earth's crust it's just a question of when. And if the resulting super-volcanic eruption is anything like the last one on earth which plunged the world into darkness for six years, tipped us into the last Ice Age and reduced the human population to just 2,000 people we're in for one explosive ride

Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears! Oogly Googly

Includes motor and hand control (with forward/reverse switch), gears, springs, connecting blocks, two claws, and three eyeballs. Starting with the motor pack, add the pieces together according to the instructions or follow your own mad scientist ideas to create endless mayhem. Can be used alone or with other Gears! Gears! Gears! sets.

Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears!

Great toy to help open up the world of "how things work" for younger kids. Inspires imaginative play, problem solving, and cause & effect thought processes. Gear up for hours of colorful action with Gears! Gears! Gears! enables children to create hundreds of three-dimensional construction possibilities. Set features plastic gears, connectors and interlocking bases packaged in a giant storage tub with an Activity Guides.

Gears! Gears! Gears! Boogie Buddy Motorized Sets

Challenge kids' mechanical reasoning skills while encouraging creativity and gross motor coordination through building and movement. Color-coding makes it easy for children to follow building instructions for three different models. They can also create their own model. Compatible with all other Gears! Gears! Gears! Sets, sold separately.

U.S. Department of the Interior