Volcanic Effusive Eruption
Volcano Terms and Definition

Savage Earth

Waves of Destruction
Out of the Inferno
Restless Planet
Hell's Crust
From the legendary fury of Mt. Vesuvius to the devastating convulsions of Kobe, Japan, Savage Earth tells the stories of these great natural disasters, the scientists who struggle to understand and predict them, and the people whose lives are forever changed by their merciless force

Supervolcano - It's Under Yellowstone. And It's Overdue

A subterranean sea of molten lava that scientists are sure will burst through the Earth's crust it's just a question of when. And if the resulting super-volcanic eruption is anything like the last one on earth which plunged the world into darkness for six years, tipped us into the last Ice Age and reduced the human population to just 2,000 people we're in for one explosive ride

Fire Mountain: The Eruption and Rebirth of Mount St. Helens
Two hundred and thirty square miles leveled in moments Five hundred and forty million tons of ash and volcanic rock exploded twelve miles high One cubic mile of earth blasted from the crest of one of the world's most beautiful snowcapped domes

Basalt lava erupts from Pu`u `O`o spatter and cinder cone at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Lava spilling from the cone has formed a series of `a`a lava channels and flows.
Effusive eruption

An eruption dominated by the outpouring of lava onto the ground is often referred to as an effusive eruption (as opposed to the violent fragmentation of magma by explosive eruptions). Lava flows generated by effusive eruptions vary in shape, thickness, length, and width depending on the type of lava erupted, discharge, slope of the ground over which the lava travels, and duration of eruption.

For example, basalt lava may become `a`a or pahohoe, and flow in deep narrow channels or in thin wide sheets. Andesite lava typically forms thick stubby flows, and dacite lava often forms steep-sided mounds called lava domes.

Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

Lava erupts from a fissure high on the northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa (about 3400 m) on the morning of March 25, 1984. Fountains are 10 to 50 m high along the fissure, and lava output is estimated at 1-2 million m 3 /hour. This fissure fed a narrow `a`a lava flow that moved only about 5 km downslope (lower right) before new vents became active farther downrift. See eruption summary from the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory for more information and images about the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa. .

Colima Volcano, Mexico

A stubby andesite lava flow advances 900-1,200 m down the southwest side of Colima Volcano. Lava was first observed in the summit crater on November 20 and began spilling over the crater rim the next day. Colima Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Mexico. For more information about Colima, see the volcanic activity reports provided by the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program

Obsidian flow, Long Valley Caldera, California. Viscous rhyolite lava was erupted to form several circular-shaped lava flows, often referred to as domes, following a series of explosive eruptions from the Mono-Inyo Volcanic Chain. The eruptions occurred about 550-650 years ago. Obsidian flow (foreground) is about 1.5 km wide (left to right). A smaller lava dome, Wilson Butte, was erupted about 1,400 years ago (left of Obsidian flow), also following a series of explosive eruptions.

World of the Microscope
Science & Experiments Series

Fascinating, hands-on introduction to using microscopes, this book is packed with exciting projects which reveal the amazing detail of the world around us.

Elenco Electronics
Electronic Snap Circuits by Elenco is an award-winning toy for budding engineers eight years old and above.

Digtal Microscope

Ring of Fire - IMAX
The Closest You'll Ever Get to a Volcano Originally filmed in IMAX Ring of Fire takes you heart stopping close to the great circle of volcanoes and seismic activity that rings the Pacific Ocean. This film has been seen by millions of people. The story of these immense volcanic forces and the half a billion people that coexist with them every day around the fiery boundary of the Pacific Rim

Volcano Glossary



Leapfrog Learning Systems

  • Handheld computerized learning system
  • Learn to write letters on the L-Max handheld screen - the letters you write will appear on the TV and star in an animated story!
  • Learn on the go or at home
  • Works with the full Leapster and Leapster L-Max software library
  • Stories suddenly come to life with the light tap of the Magic Pen
  • The award-winning LeapPad Learning System teaches fundamental reading skills in a way that keeps your child coming back again and again
  • The LeapPad Learning System uses a larger platform and thinner pen designed for preschoolers and kindergartners to introduce them to the magic of books and reading
  • The library is organized by grade to teach reading, phonics, vocabulary, math, science, music and much more

U.S. Department of the Interior