Volcanic Dome
Volcano Terms and Definition

Volcano Book
Volcano & Earthquake DK Eyewitness Books
Eyewitness Books provide an in-depth, comprehensive look at their subjects with a unique integration of words and pictures.





Gears! Gears! Gears! Boogie Buddy Motorized Sets

Challenge kids' mechanical reasoning skills while encouraging creativity and gross motor coordination through building and movement. Color-coding makes it easy for children to follow building instructions for three different models.





Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears!
Great toy to help open up the world of "how things work" for younger kids. Inspires imaginative play, problem solving, and cause & effect thought processes.





Learning Resources Gears! Gears! Gears! Oogly Googly

Includes motor and hand control (with forward/reverse switch), gears, springs, connecting blocks, two claws, and three eyeballs. Starting with the motor pack, add the pieces together according to the instructions or follow your own mad scientist ideas to create endless mayhem.

Volcanic dome atop Novarupta vent, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The dome was erupted from the same vent that expelled about 15 km 3 of magma in an enormous explosive eruption in 1912.
Volcanic Dome


Volcanic domes are rounded, steep-sided mounds built by very viscous magma, usually either dacite or rhyolite. Such magmas are typically too viscous (resistant to flow) to move far from the vent before cooling and crystallizing. Domes may consist of one or more individual lava flows. Volcanic domes are also referred to as lava domes.

Unzen Volcano, Japan

Unzen lava dome and Mizunashi River Valley
Gray pathways spreading from the lava dome atop Unzen Volcano are the deposits of many small pyroclastic flows that originated from dome collapses. A few pyroclastic flows swept as far as 5 km down this populated river valley, destroying several hundred homes and precious farmland. Lahars destroyed even more property downstream of the loose pyroclastic-flow deposits. The lava dome was active between 1991 and 1995.

Lava Dome Grows Above Steep Slope
Viscous lava began erupting in May 1991 at the summit of Unzen and quickly built a mound-shaped dome atop an older lava dome. The new dome spread over volcano's steep east flank (right profile). As lava moved over the edge of this steep slope, hot lava blocks unpredictably broke away or "collapse" downslope to form pyroclastic flows many times a day. Each collapse event added new fragmented material to the dome's east side and the upper Mizunashi River valley.

Sequence of a Lava Dome Collapse
During collapse events of the Unzen dome, an avalanche of hot lava blocks crashed downslope. The avalanche quickly became a fast-moving pyroclastic flow of shattered lava fragments, volcanic gas, and air. Within seconds, a faster moving "cloud" of smaller ash-sized fragments, called an ash-cloud surge, formed above and in front of the pyroclastic flow. Finally, as the flow spread away from the volcano, ash and hot gas rose to build an eruption column; when detached from the volcano, the volcanic ash and gas became an eruption cloud.


Pyroclastic Flows Rush Down New River Valley
Nakao River Valley

Two years after the lava dome began erupting atop Unzen, pyrocalstic flows cascaded down the northeast side of the volcano into the populated Nakao River valley. In anticipation of these new flows, Japanese officials had already ordered several thousand residents to evacuate the valley. The pyroclastic flows and associated ash-cloud surges spread across the entire valley as far as 4.5 km from the volcano, and built a thick apron of debris at the mouth of the river canyon (note large blocks of lava on apron). Lava dome is in upper right
volcanism
Volcanism
Volcanic eruptions are the clear and dramatic expression of dynamic processes going on in planet Earth. The author, one of the most profound specialists in the field of volcanology, explains in a concise and easy to understand manner the basics and most recent findings in the field of volcanology.





Fire Mountain: The Eruption and Rebirth of Mount St. Helens
Two hundred and thirty square miles leveled in moments Five hundred and forty million tons of ash and volcanic rock exploded twelve miles high One cubic mile of earth blasted from the crest of one of the world's most beautiful snowcapped domes Captured in rare and spectacular aerial photography and survivor's own words and pictures, witness the terrifying fury of the worst volcanic disaster in American history





Elenco Electronics
Electronic Snap Circuits by Elenco is an award-winning toy for budding engineers eight years old and above.





Digtal Microscope

Volcano Glossary



NOVA - In the Path of a Killer Volcano
The scientists who remain behind- and see some astonishing footage of the world's largest volcanic eruption in 80 years. Local tribes people were the first to see the signs. "There was a flash of light from the sky"

National Geographic - Volcano
The most dazzling but destructive natural force on earth. Massive volcanic eruption can turn day into night, releasing the power of an atomic blast, spewing toxic avalanches of lava, gas, and ash. National Geographic Video transports you to some of the world's most notorious volcanoes

National Geographic's Restless Earth Collection
Asteroids Deadly Impact Volcano Nature's Fury. The devastating powers of earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanoes and other earth-shattering forces of nature in dramatic scenes of destruction and inspiring human courage captured by the acclaimed filmmakers of National Geographic

Super volcano - It's Under Yellowstone. And It's Overdue

A subterranean sea of molten lava that scientists are sure will burst through the Earth's crust it's just a question of when. And if the resulting super-volcanic eruption is anything like the last one on earth which plunged the world into darkness for six years, tipped us into the last Ice Age and reduced the human population to just 2,000 people we're in for one explosive ride


          

           

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Source:
U.S. Department of the Interior